THE TRUTH - JUSTICE - LOVE
Thousands of people in Vietnam and abroad have enthusiastically signed participation to support the revision of the Constitution the State of Vietnam in 2013 was initiated by a group of Vietnamese bauxite with original signatures from 72 intellectuals of Vietnam, including the involvement of some members of the Communist Party of Vietnam and the dignitaries of the Catholic Bishops' Council of Vietnam and is still being continued with strong consensus from the public Comment Vietnamese people living in and outside the country. This suggests that, his desire to grow in the hearts of Democratic and stood before the worst of the Vietnam country today, people are increasingly aware of their responsibilities that the citizens in the country have been often oblivious and insensitive to the Society, with the country in recent years.
Thereby, all of us also see the practical significance of the draft amendments to the Constitution and the importance of it to prop up a society, a country Vietnam is degraded and depleted in all aspects , from matter to spirit, from human to human behavior, culture and moral tradition. Generally, the participants signed the draft amendments to the Constitution in 2013 this time with the participation and consensus from a large segment of intellectuals, religious leaders of Vietnam, and all levels of people including many Vietnamese communist party members involved, demonstrate the proposed new Constitution amended in 2013 fully met the expectations of the people and the feasibility of it. Especially in the volatile period of the Social and Vietnam country today.
We'll start with a reference to a draft proposal to amend and supplement the State Constitution in 2013 to be able to understand more and more about the range recommended in the new Constitution, as well as see the right benefit the citizens of each of us as the above the proposed new Constitution was passed, approved and officially promulgated in Vietnam. We encourage and call for broad participation of all, Vietnamese citizens regardless of nationality components, components Religion and social components. The participants signed the petition to amend the Constitution above 2013 is not just the sense of responsibility of all citizens to society, to the country of Vietnam, but also is an opportunity to help solve any difficulties , all the problems that society and our country is facing. Which includes all the true interests of themselves and their families of each of us as the new 2013 Constitution was being decided. In addition, we are also urging people to spread along the proposed draft amendments to the 2013 Constitution again everyone, every family, and to hand all Vietnamese citizens so that everyone has the opportunity to sign the participants expressed the civic responsibility to the society and country.
2178 people signed the petition to amend the Constitution by Boxitvn team initiated
Posted by at 12:20 AM 4/02/13
VRNs (02/04/2013) - Saigon - At noon yesterday, just 12 days (from 01/22/2013, published in blog boxitvn), Vietnam 2178 people subscribed to participate Amendment Petition method (HP) as proposed by group Boxitvn.
Original petition signed by 72 people, including the top of the list is Dr. Nguyen Quang A, former Director of the Institute of IDS, Hanoi, ranked 26 in the Paul Nguyen Thai Hop, Bishop of the Diocese of Vinh, Pham 60th all teachers, Hanoi, ...
In the list of more than two thousand signed many intellectuals, businessmen, religious dignitaries, teachers, students, unskilled labor in the majority of countries, along with a number of overseas Vietnamese.
Particularly in countries, including Communist Party members are also signatories concur with this recommendation. Especially Bishop Nguyen Chi Linh, bishop of Thanh Hoa, Vice Chairman of the Vietnam Bishops, and Archbishop Ngo Quang Kiet, former archbishop of Hanoi also sign the list.
Archbishop Joseph Ngo Quang Kiet was signed to propose amendments HP list 2013 - Photo BTH
Confirmation letters and signed by Archbishop Joseph Ngo Quang Kiet done in monasteries Chan Son, Nho Quan, Ninh Binh - Photo BTH
Petition 7 comments:
- The first point is that should withdraw the Communist Party from the preface and 4 HP. Recommendations that: "The way society leaders will be elected by the people in free elections, democracy, periodically. A major political party really means, for the benefit of the people will not fear of failure in such elections. Soviet Constitution of 1977 provided for in Article 6 the Communist Party's leadership role for the state and society did not prevent the collapse of the Soviet regime as no longer the people's confidence ".
- The second is the right man. Petition says: "We asked to change the draft in accordance with the spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 and the international conventions to which Vietnam has participated. If the rights are set forth in the Constitution that are not enforced strictly as now, then the provisions of those rights become meaningless. So we ask that the Constitution established a National Committee on Human Rights independent ".
- The third is a cause of stress for many years, land ownership. Petition says: "we propose to amend Article 57 of the draft, back as the 1946 Constitution and the 1959 Constitution. Can be defined as follows: 'Private Property, collective, community and state land are respected. The State shall protect and unified management of land, water resources, mineral resources, other resources from the sea, the continental shelf, airspace and other assets invested by the State ' . Replace specified land acquisition of land by compulsory purchase and does not apply to projects of socio-economic development as outlined in Article 58 of the draft.
- The fourth point is the state organization. At this point, proposals focused on separation of powers (legislative, executive and judicial), and HP Court.
- The fifth point is about the armed forces. The petition states armed forces only the task of protecting the nation and the people, should not be dependent on any organization, including the Communist Party.
- The sixth is a constitutional right of all people. The petition emphasized the difference of constitutional and legislative. Constitutional Convention of the people, legislature of the National Assembly. Should all people have the right to report to HP.
- The last point is the term suggestions for amending HP. The petition deadline until the end of 2013, rather than just the end of the month 03.2013 Congress announced.
These advocates propose increasing, but also the opinion doubtful.
Most doubt that the Communist Party is only a form but really listen to where people that contributed to that. It was said that the petition is "inserted" of communism, to find and capture who previously silently against them, this publicize names.
This person said (afternoon 2.2.2013): "Knowlege communist official report had 1.981 people sign the petition to amend the constitution. Of the 1.981 people, will have a lot to share political views, there will be a lot of public identity. And after this demagogic campaign consultation, there will be over 1,000 people being investigated, harassed and persecuted in prison for "against the government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. A report on the performance of the communist intellectuals did recruit those anti-communist exposed ".
Proponents say: "propose is CSTV read, the interest and seek to improve is very good for the people and for the country, even if they do not understand, this is a public announcement for the whole nation Vietnam that have a very large number of citizens do not agree with HP they offer. Previously disagreement may be, but it's all hidden, propaganda system should still claims that their policy decisions supported by all the people. This can not be that simple. "
Another opinion states: "If only a few people who signed up to be arrested, but millions of people that can not catch it all. If arrest a few people for exemplary or hostage threats, the rest people not perhaps let stand for? "
It is known that, in the parish of Thai Ha, Hanoi, last Sunday 27.01, and yesterday 10/02/2013 the table signatories propose amendments HP 2013.
Thai Ha parishioners to sign the amended Petition HP 2013 - Photo BTH
This is the first time, with a political agenda, that communication system of the Communist Party both to propaganda and counter propaganda work to do at the same time. People will have the opportunity to know better the event, if there is enough time and skills to access both offering information flow and marginal people.
You do want to enroll in this petition, please send simple personal information: Full name, occupation, position (if any), the residence of the e-mail: email@example.com.
THE LIST SIGN PETITION AMENDED CONSTITUTION 1992
1- Nguyen Quang A, former Director of the Institute of IDS, Hanoi
2- Lai Nguyen An, researchers, Ha Noi
3- Huynh Kim Bau, former Secretary General of the Patriotic Intellectuals Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City
4- Huynh Ngoc Chenh, journalists, Ho Chi Minh City
5- Nguyen Hue Chi, Professor, former Chairman of the Scientific Council of the Institute of Literature, Hanoi
6- Tong Van Cong, former editor of Labor report, Ho Chi Minh City
7- Pham Vinh Cu, researchers, Hanoi
8-Nguyen Xuan Dien, TS, Ha Noi
9- Le Dang Doanh, former members of the Research Committee of the Prime Minister Phan Van Khai, former member of the Institute of IDS, Hanoi
10- Hoang Dung, Prof. Dr, Ho Chi Minh City
11- Nguyen Van Dung, writer, martial arts, Hue
12- Ho Ngoc Dai, Prof. Dr. teachers, Hanoi
13- Le Hieu Dang, former Deputy Secretary General of the Central Committee of the Union forces Ethnicity, Democracy and Peace Vietnam, former Vice President of the Vietnam Fatherland Front, Ho Chi Minh City People's Council Ho Chi Minh keys 4, 5, Ho Chi Minh City
14- Nguyen Dinh Dau, researchers, Ho Chi Minh City
15- Le Hien Duc, 2007 Integrity Award Transparency International, Hanoi
16- Phan Hong Giang, TSKH, Hanoi
17- Le Giau, former Deputy Permanent Secretary of the Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union of Ho Chi Minh City, the former Deputy Director of Tourism Corporation City (Saigon), Ho Chi Minh City
18- Chu Hao, former Deputy Minister of Science, Technology and Environment, former member of the Institute of IDS, Hanoi
19- Nguyen Gia Hao, former members of the advisory group of the Prime Minister Vo Van Kiet, Hanoi
20- Dang Thi Hao, TS, Ha Noi
21- Vo Thi Hao, writer, Hanoi
22- Pham Duy Hien, Professor, former Director of the Da Lat Nuclear Research Institute, former member of the Institute of IDS, Hanoi
23- Ho Hieu, former Con Dao prison, former director of the Office of Advocacy Committee of the Fatherland Front Committee of Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City
24- Nguyen Xuan Hoa, former director of the Department of Culture of Thua Thien - Hue, Chairman of the Arts Thua Thien - Hue
25- Nguyen Van Hong (ie, also Van), Secretary General of the Executive Committee of the Student Union Office University 1964-1965 Saigon, Da Nang
26- Paul Nguyen Thai Hop, Bishop of the Diocese of Vinh
27- Nguyen The Hung, Prof. Dr., Danang University of Technology, Vice Chairman of the Vietnam Marine Engineering Mechanics, Da Nang
28- Tran Ngoc Kha, journalists, Hanoi
29- Tuong Lai, former Director of the Institute of Sociology, former members of the advisory group of the Prime Minister Vo Van Kiet, former member of the Institute of IDS, Ho Chi Minh City
30- Pham Chi Lan, former members of the Research Committee of the Prime Minister Phan Van Khai, former Deputy Director of the Institute of IDS, Hanoi
31- Cao Lap, former political prisoners in Con Dao, the former director of the Binh Quoi Tourist Village, Ho Chi Minh City
32- Ho Uy Liem, former Deputy Chairman of the Union of Science and Technology of Vietnam, Hanoi
33- Nguyen Dinh Loc, former Minister of Justice, Hanoi
34- Nguyen Khac Mai, former Director of Public Relations of the Central Committee, Hanoi
35- Huynh Tan Mam, doctors, 6 th National Assembly deputies, former Chairman of the Student Association of Saigon before 1975, Ho Chi Minh City
36- Huynh Cong Minh, diocesan priest in Saigon, Ho Chi Minh City
37- Pham Gia Minh City, TS, Ha Noi
38- Kha Luong Ngai, former deputy editor of Liberation Saigon, Ho Chi Minh City
39- Nguyen Ngoc, a writer, a former member of the Institute of IDS, Hoi An
40- Ha Dinh Nguyen, a former political prisoner Con Dao, former Chairman of the Action Committee of the General Assembly of Student Saigon before 1975, Ho Chi Minh City
41- Tran Duc Nguyen, former Head of the Research Department of the Prime Minister Phan Van Khai, former member of the Institute of IDS, Hanoi
42- Pham Xuan Nguyen, Chairman of Writers, Hanoi
43- Pham Duc Nguyen, Associate Professor PhD, Senior Lecturer University, Hanoi
44- Ho Ngoc Nhuan, Commissioner of the Vietnam Fatherland Front Central Committee, Vice Chairman of the Vietnam Fatherland Front, Ho Chi Minh, former political director of the daily morning news, HCMC
45- Nguyen Huu Chau Phan, researchers, Hue
46- Hoang Xuan Phu, GS Institute of Mathematics, Hanoi, Vietnam
47- Tran Viet Phuong, former assistant to Prime Minister Pham Van Dong, a former member of the IDS Institute, Hanoi
48- Nguyen Dang Quang, a former police colonel, Hanoi
49- Dao Xuan Sam, a former member of the Advisory Group of the Prime Minister Vo Van Kiet, former member of the Research Department of the Prime Minister Phan Van Khai, Hanoi
50- To Le Son, engineer, Ho Chi Minh City
51- Tran Dinh Su, Prof. Dr., Hanoi
52- Nguyen Trong Tao, writer, Hanoi
53- Le Van Tam, PhD, former president of the Vietnamese Association in Japan, Japan
54- Tran Cong Thach, retirement, Ho Chi Minh City
55- Nguyen Quoc Thai, journalists, Ho Chi Minh City
56- Tran Thi Bang, Prof. Dr., Hanoi
57- Le Quoc Thang, diocesan priests Saigon, Ho Chi Minh City
58- Dao Tien Thi, master, Hanoi
59- Nguyen Minh Thuyet, Professor PhD, former Deputy Chairman of the Committee of Culture, Education, Youth, Teens and Children's Congress, Hanoi
60- Pham Toan, teachers, Hanoi
61- Pham Dinh Trong, writer, Ho Chi Minh City
62- Nguyen Trung, former assistant to the Prime Minister Vo Van Kiet, former member of the Institute of IDS, Hanoi
63- Vu Quoc Tuan, former assistant to the Prime Minister Vo Van Kiet, former member of the Research Department of the Prime Minister Phan Van Khai, Hanoi
64- Hoang Tuy, Professor, Institute of Mathematics, former Chairman of IDS Institute, Hanoi
65- Luu Trong Van, journalist, Ho Chi Minh City
66- Tran Thanh Van, architects, Ha Noi
67- Nguyen Vien, writers, Ho Chi Minh City
68- Nguyen Huu Vinh, entrepreneurs, Hanoi
69- To Nhuan Vy, writer, Hue
70- Nguyen Dac Xuan, writer, Hue
71- Nguyen Dong Yen, Prof. Dr., Institute of Mathematics, Hanoi, Vietnam
72- Nguyen Phu Yen, musicians, Ho Chi Minh City
Reference document for discussion:
DRAFT CONSTITUTION 2013
Next the cultures and traditions of generations indomitable ancestors build and defend the country, fought for freedom and independence of the nation,
for social justice, democracy and respect for the rule of law and for the happiness and freedom of the present and future generations,
we, the people of Vietnam, through its representative, the construction of the Constitution.
Chapter I. GENERAL PROVISIONS
Article 1. National sovereignty
Vietnam is a democratic republic, sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity, including the mainland, islands, waters and airspace.
Article 2. People's Sovereignty
Vietnam's sovereignty belongs to the people and all government power comes from the people. Constitutional right is a right not to be deprived of the people.
Article 3. Vietnamese ethnic community
1. Democratic Republic of Vietnam is the national unity of the peoples living on the territory of Vietnam.
2. Ethnic equality, solidarity, respect and help each other to grow. Prohibit all acts of discrimination, ethnic division.
3. National language is Vietnamese. The people have the right to use its own language, writing, preserve ethnic identity, have the right to promote the customs, practices, traditions and cultural good.
4. Vietnam Democratic Republic of comprehensive development policy implementation and create conditions for all ethnic minorities developing internal resources, integration into the overall development of the country.
Article 4. Citizen
1. Vietnamese citizens who have Vietnamese nationality. Vietnamese nationality law.
2. Vietnamese citizen can not be deported from the territory of Vietnam, hand over to the state.
3. State protection of Vietnamese citizens abroad.
4. Overseas Vietnamese community is part of the Vietnamese ethnic community.
5. Vietnamese descent or nationality has no nationality has the right to a nationality Vietnam.
6. Status of foreigners is guaranteed in accordance with international law and international treaties.
Article 5. The treaties
1. Vietnam Democratic Republic of recognition, inheritance and respect the treaties was the previous government of Vietnam has signed and issued not inconsistent with the corresponding constitution and the general rules of international law International recognition at the time.
2. Democratic Republic of Vietnam does not recognize any treaty, agreement or representation that the previous government of Vietnam has signed or made in secret, ultra vires or not in accordance with the procedures law at the time.
3. Democratic Republic of Vietnam does not recognize any treaty, agreement or statement made by any political parties, non-government organizations or individuals that have signed or given, in secret or openly , relating to the Vietnamese sovereignty and territory.
Article 6. Respect for peace, national defense and people
1. Vietnam Democratic Republic of the efforts to maintain international peace and abandon aggressive war.
2. Protect the territorial integrity and preserve national security is the sacred duty of all people of Vietnam.
3. The armed forces are given sacred mission to protect the territorial integrity and national security.
4. The armed forces must maintain political neutrality, put the people's interests ahead of any individual or organization.
Article 7. Civil nature of the police force
Police force whose mission is to enforce the law and maintain order. Civilian police in the field, does not belong to the armed forces.
Article 8. Responsibilities of public servants
1. Public employees are public servants of the people and responsible to the people.
2. Status and political neutrality of civil servants be guaranteed in accordance with the law.
Article 9. Political parties
1. The political parties are free to set up and operate according to the principles of democracy. Political rights are respected.
2. Legislation to ensure equality between the political parties.
Article 10. The national economy
1. The economy of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam based on respect for the freedom and initiative of enterprises and individuals in economic life.
2. State regulation and coordination of economic activities in order to maintain sustainable balanced growth, and stability, to income distribution, to prevent market dominance and abuse of economic power.
3. State is obliged to promote the development of economic sectors in order to balance the national economy. State to promote economic development by science and technology, information, human resources and encourage creativity.
Article 11. National flag, national emblem, national anthem, national day and the capital
1. Flag of Vietnam Democratic Republic of the rectangle, the width is equal to two-thirds the length, red background, in the middle of a five-pointed gold star.
2. Emblem of the Vietnam Democratic Republic of the circle, red background, in the middle of a five-pointed gold star, rice framed, in less than half a wheel teeth and the words: the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
3. National Anthem of Vietnam Democratic Republic of the music and lyrics of the song "Marching".
4. National Day is the day the Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945.
5. Capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, Hanoi.
CHAPTER II. HUMAN RIGHTS, FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF CITIZENS
Article 12. Principles of respect for human rights
1. In the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, the human rights recognized in the International Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and other international human rights treaties to which Vietnam is a member, shall be respected and protected protection.
2. State agencies, public officials and employees are obliged to respect, protect and promote human rights in the areas of civil, political, economic, social and cultural.
Article 13. Equal rights
1. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms without any discrimination based on sex, language, religion, opinion, national or social origin, property, component origin or other factors.
2. The priority is to protect minorities.
Article 14. The right to life, liberty and security of person
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. The right to live in a healthy environment of the people must be respected and protected.
Article 15. Freedom from slavery
No one shall be held in slavery or forced to work as slaves. All forms of slavery and human trafficking are prohibited.
Article 16. Freedom from torture and other rights in the criminal justice field
1. No one was tortured or treated, sanctioning a cruel, inhuman or lower dignity.
2. No one was arrested, held or detained arbitrarily. Within 24 hours after the arrest, the person arrested must be brought before a court to consider and approve or cancel the arrest.
3. People, if the alleged criminal, has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial, where he secured the conditions necessary to defend them.
4. No one accused of a crime for any behavior that does not constitute a criminal offense under national law or international law at the time of the act. Also no one was sentenced to more severe penalty is prescribed at the time of the offense is done.
Article 17. Right to court protection and the right to a fair trial
1. Everyone has the right to the court of competent jurisdiction effective protection measures against the violation of their fundamental rights were constitutional or statutory.
2. Everyone is equal in the right to a fair trial, publicly by an independent and impartial tribunal to determine their rights and obligations, as well as on any of the charges against them.
Article 18. Protection of honor, reputation and privacy
1. Personal honor and reputation of the people be respected.
2. Private life, family, home and correspondence of the people be respected.
Article 19. The right to liberty of movement and freedom of residence
1. Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and freedom of residence within the territory of the country.
2. Everyone has the right to leave and to return to Vietnam.
Article 20. The right to marry
1. People when they're old enough to have the right to marry and to found a family without any restriction on the basis of race, nationality, religion or gender.
2. The marriage only be carried out with the full consent and voluntary couple's future.
Article 21. Ownership
1. Everyone has the right to own private property or jointly owned with others. No one shall be deprived of property arbitrarily.
2. Land under private ownership, collective ownership, community ownership or state ownership.
Article 22. Freedom of thought, belief and religion
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, belief and religion.
Article 23. Freedom of speech, demonstration, assembly and association
1. Everyone has the right to freedom of speech and expression in all forms. Private rights, publishing.
2. Everyone has the right to freedom of demonstration and peaceful assembly.
3. Everyone has the right to freedom of association. No one was forced to participate in any organization.
Article 24. Right to political participation
Every citizen has the right to participate in management of the country, either directly or through their representatives that freedom of choice in the election.
Article 25. Right to social security
Everyone has the right to social security.
Article 26. Labor and union rights
1. Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of profession, enjoy fair working conditions, advantages and protection against unemployment.
2. Everyone has the right to equal pay for equal work without any discrimination.
3. All workers have the right to be entitled to fair and reasonable compensation to ensure the survival of themselves and their families deserve dignity.
4. Everyone has the right to form or join trade unions for the protection of their rights.
5. Labor's right to strike is guaranteed by law.
Article 27. Right to an adequate standard of living
1. Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate enough to ensure the health and welfare of themselves and their families, as well as the right to be covered in the event of unemployment, sickness, widowhood, old age or lack of means of livelihood due to circumstances beyond their ability to cope.
2. Mothers and children are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.
Article 28. Right to education
Everyone has the right to education. Primary education is compulsory and free.
Article 29. Cultural rights
1. Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share scientific advances as well as the benefits derived from scientific advances.
2. Everyone has the right to protect the physical and mental benefits arising from any creative science, literature or art that he or she is the author.
Article 30. Consumer protection
The State shall take effective measures to protect the interests of consumers.
Article 31. General principles and obligations
Everyone has duties to the community. When enjoyment of his rights and freedoms, everyone must comply with the limitations prescribed by law, aims to ensure appropriate recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others, as well as to meet the legitimate requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
Article 31. Tax obligations
All citizens are obliged to pay tax under the statutory conditions.
Article 32. Defense and gratitude to those who have
1. Defense is the sacred duty. All citizens are obliged to protect the country.
2. Democratic Republic of Vietnam recognize and honor the work of all those who gave their lives to protect the country, recognize and honor the work of the wounded soldiers, veterans whether they had served service in the past and may support their policies in education, vocational training and livelihood.
Article 33. Military Service
Citizens to perform military service and join the armed forces reserve in accordance with the law.
Chapter III. LEGISLATIVE
Article 34. Congress
1. People's legislative powers are authorized by Congress. Parliament consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate.
2. Members of Congress as lawmakers, including Representatives and Senators. Representatives and Senators are elected by the people through elections of universal, equal, direct and secret ballot.
3. No one can at the same time as the House of Parliament and Senators.
4. Parliament has legislative authority, approved the appointment of heads of law enforcement agencies, appointment of judges, leaders of the independent constitutional body under the provisions of the Constitution and the law.
Article 35. Rep.
1. Representatives have a three-year term and may be re-elected.
2. Each constituency elected 1 (a) Representatives.
3. Rep. election unit includes the basic administrative units (communes) are located in an area so that the units of approximately equal population.
4. Constituency of a provincial-level administrative units is calculated by rounding integer number is calculated by the population of the provincial units (according to the latest population census) multiplied by 250 and then divided by the the national population. A provincial-level administrative units have at least one constituency.
5. All citizens 25 years of age before the election could be Rep. candidate in a constituency if: (a) be signed by the 10 thousand voters support, or (b) has been a Decree officers, or (c) is a political party nomination.
6. But the Representatives are elected by each constituency, they represent not only the people of that constituency for the people throughout the country.
Article 36. Senator
1. The Senators have a six-year term and may be re-elected.
2. Each provincial-level administrative units (provinces and cities under central authority) is a constituency Senator.
3. All citizens 30 years of age before the election may be the Senate candidate in a constituency Senator if: (a) be signed by the 10 thousand voters support, or (b) has former Senator, or (c) is a political party nomination.
4. Number of senators elected each unit is 2. For provinces with ethnic minority exceed 20% of the provincial population, they must have one Senator from ethnic minorities.
5. In the first elected senator, every constituency, by lottery, pick out one senator has a term of three years and one senator has a term of six years, so that every three years, will take over the election back half of the Senators of the Senate.
6. But the Senator is elected in each constituency, they represent not only the people of that constituency for the people throughout the country.
Article 37. Senate and House of Representatives elections
1. The election of all of the Representatives and the Senate for the first time under this Constitution be conducted within 100 days from the effective date of the Constitution.
2. All MPs on the proper 36 month term for Representatives and Senators are elected for the first time have a term of three years from the date of the oath of office; into the correct days 72 months for Sen. have a term of six years from the date of inauguration.
3. Within 100 days before the Senator full term, to hold election of the new Parliament for the next term. If electoral units do not meet the person elected, shall be elected from the organization's candidate lost the election the previous election within 15 days after the election before the end. (The) election was conducted until the select sufficient number of persons elected in accordance with and in any case must be finished before the end of term incumbent Congressman 15 days.
4. If defects Senator for any reason, then (a) if the period of the remaining term of less than one year will be no additional election;, or (b) the if time remaining term equal to or more than 1 year to organize additional election in that constituency enough of the defect within 60 days after the confirmation of the defect Institute. Additional term of office of persons elected will terminate with the term of office of the incumbent Senator.
5. Procedures for nomination, election, elections are detailed provisions in the election law.
Article 38. The full-time, sworn and immunities of Parliament
1. While incumbent Senator may not concurrently hold any other position in any agency, public or private organizations, in the armed forces or the police. If you already hold such positions before being elected to Parliament must formally resign that position before performing the task of Parliament and the refusal to resign will be considered give Congressman task.
2. The MPs are paid from the National Treasury.
3. Senator, before you start performing the task, will be sworn in before each House: "I solemnly swear to carry out their duties in a diligent and dedicated to protecting the rights and interests interests of the people and the country; doing everything within its jurisdiction for the prosperity of the country and the happiness of the people; abide by the Constitution and laws of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. " The refusal of the oath shall be deemed a waiver of Parliamentary duties.
4. MPs will not be held responsible outside parliament formally stated or opinions about his vote in Parliament.
5. Parliament can not be arrested or detained without the consent of the majority of 2/3 of the Parliament of the Parliament which Parliament is a member, except flagrant offenses.
Article 39. Integrity and avoid conflicts of interest of MPs
1. MPs are obliged to maintain high standards of integrity, to give priority to national interests and perform their duties in accordance with conscience.
2. MPs must not abuse their positions and powers, not require the benefit of property or status, or to help others gain through collusion or arrangement of state institutions public authorities or the industry.
3. MPs to declare their assets in accordance with the law.
4. Senator, the husband or wife of a Senator, as well as the businesses they owned or dominant power, can not attend the auction or contract with public bodies and state enterprises dominant ownership or gain.
Article 40. Organization of the House
1. Each House of Parliament shall have one vote when voting in the House.
2. All decisions of the House of Representatives is considered passed if a majority, except decisions specifically mentioned in the Constitution requires a majority of two thirds of the vote.
3. House of Representatives to elect a President and a Vice President.
4. If for any reason the Speaker vacant, the Vice-President of the temporary acting chairman until the House of Representatives elected the new president within 60 days.
5. House to decide on its internal organization, which can be established in the Office of the House of Representatives, the standing committee or interim.
Article 41. Senate Organization
1. Each Senator shall have one vote when voting in the Senate.
2. All decisions of the Senate will be considered adopted if a majority of votes, unless the decision specifically mentioned in the Constitution requires a majority of two thirds of the vote.
3. Senate to elect a Chairman and a Vice Chairman.
4. If, for any reason, that vacant Senate President, the Vice-President temporarily acting President until the Senate elected a new president within 60 days.
5. Senate to decide on its internal organization, may be able to set up the Office of the Senate, the Standing Committee or the interim.
Article 42. Meeting House, the Senate and the National Assembly
1. Except where the Constitution or other laws, a meeting of the House (or Senate) is valid if the presence of a majority of the total number of Representatives (or Senate), valid decisions adopted with a majority of votes present.
2. National Assembly joint session of the House of Representatives and the Senate presided by Chairman of the House or Senate President presiding as Chairman of the House absent. Congress to enact regulations on the procedures and modalities of the National Assembly. The decision of the National Assembly is the decision made at the general meeting.
3. The meeting of the House of Representatives, the Senate and the National Assembly are open to the public for the public, unless a majority of members present decision, or when the President deems it necessary for the national security interests, the public does not able to attend.
4. The public procedures of the closed session will be provided by law.
5. Minutes of meetings shall be complete, detailed, stating opinions and votes of individual MPs. Can simultaneously record, recording the meeting for storage. Every citizen has the right of access to minutes of meetings open to the public, according to the procedure established by law.
Article 43. The right to submit bills
1. The MPs, law enforcement agencies can submit bills.
2. A group of at least 30,000 voters have the right to submit bills. The procedures prescribed by law.
3. Bills must be submitted to the Office of the House of Representatives.
4. Person, or group of citizen-sponsored bills, when submitting bills to the House, shall have to see what the financial consequences of the implementation of the bill.
5. Person, group or entity that bills may withdraw the bill in the evaluation and review process through.
Article 44. Evaluate, discuss and pass the bill
1. Draft laws, draft laws were submitted to the House of Representatives referred the bill. The bill must go through the stages of evaluation in accordance with the law.
2. House of discussion, consideration and voted through the bill with a majority of votes present or rejected. In all cases, the resolutions adopted or rejected, within three days of the bill and rejected records or through must be transferred to the Office of the Senate.
3. If the House of Representatives passed the bill, the bill be considered by the Senate and the Senate bill is passed, if achieved approved by a majority of votes present. In that case the bill was passed by the National Assembly (both 2) through.
4. If the Senate rejects it within 3 days of the bill must be returned to the House of Representatives with the resolution stating the reasons for rejection. House will be reviewed and if the bill passed by the House of Representatives again with a majority of 2/3 of the Representatives, the bill is considered by the National Assembly, if not a majority of 2/3, must still pass the Senate for consideration.
5. In special cases, if deemed necessary, the House may request the Senate to consider and vote on a bill, then the House of Representatives for consideration and vote. Meanwhile the role of the each interchangeable Institute in the above process.
6. Time to consider and vote on the bill in the Senate does not exceed one half (1/2) time to consider and vote in the House. Time to consider and vote on the bill in the House of Representatives shall not exceed twice the time to consider and vote in the Senate.
7. Bills can not be removed because it is not passed in the session in which it is offered, except in the case of the term of office of the Senator has expired.
Article 45. The bill becomes law
1. The bill was passed by the National Assembly must be sent to the President within seven days.
2. After receiving the bill was passed by the National Assembly, the president can move the bill to the Constitutional Court to review whether there is compliance with the Constitution or not. In the case of the Constitutional Court to verify the bill in accordance with the Constitution, it becomes law. In case the bill has specific provisions by the Constitutional Court to be unconstitutional and the Constitutional Court did not define the terms that are inseparable from the whole bill, the President can remove provisions that were unconstitutional after consultation of the President of the House of Representatives and the bill became law with the removal.
3. Within 15 days after receiving the bill from the National Assembly, if approved by the President, the bill becomes law.
4. If the President opposed the bill, within 15 days after receiving from the National Assembly, the President returned to the National Assembly to reconsider the bill with a written explanation of the protest, but not required Congress to review each section of the bill or proposed amendment.
5. If the President opposed the bill, but over a period of 15 days on which the President does not return the bill to the National Assembly, the bill automatically becomes law.
6. In the case of the President returned the bill to the National Assembly, the National Assembly to reconsider the bill, then: (a) modify the normal sequence, or (b) through the original text of the bill with the most 2/3 of the delegates present, case the bill becomes
Article 46. Disclosure laws
1. When the bill became law, the President shall publish the law without delay.
2. In case the bill automatically becomes law (in accordance with Clause 5, Article 45) or become law in accordance with (b) Paragraph 6 of Article 45, the President must sign the disclosure without delay;, if the President has not announced Chairman of the House of Commons signed disclosure and behavior of the President may be grounds for impeachment violates the Constitution.
3. Law published in the Official Gazette and take effect on the date prescribed by law or 30 days after the date of publication if the law does not specify the effective date.
Article 47. Budget
1. No money from the state budget is spent, whether the Executive Agency requests, if not through Congress.
2. Executive will draft budget bill for each fiscal year and submitted to the House of Representatives at least 90 days before the start of the new fiscal year.
3. Congress does not increase the amount of any expenses, does not create any new expenditure items in the budget bill without the consent of the Executive Agency.
4. House to decide on the budget bill within 45 days after the budget bill was submitted and passed on to the Senate.
5. Senate decision on the budget bill passed by the House of Representatives within 20 days.
6. If the budget bill is not passed before the start of the new fiscal year, the Executive Agency may be disbursed in a manner consistent with the previous fiscal year's budget, for the following purposes until the budget law passed by the National Assembly: (a) to maintain the operation of the institutions established by the Constitution or the law; (b) for the implementation of the payments required under the provisions of law; and (c) for the continuation of projects previously approved in the budget.
7. The Senate and House of Representatives may have general meeting to consider and decide on the budget when necessary.
Article 48. Budget revenue and expenditure audit
A final financial report on revenues and expenditures of the national budget will be audited annually by the State Auditor and presented to the National Assembly.
Article 49. Taxes
The type and level shall be determined by law.
Article 50. Debt
All plans of the Executive Agency for the issuance of national bonds and contracts that have financial obligations arise out of the State budget must be approved by the House.
Article 51. Question
1. Representatives have the right to question the Minister in writing or by direct questions in the sessions of the House of Representatives.
2. Written question must be answered in writing within 21 days from the date of receipt of the question.
3. The Minister is responsible for answering the questions raised in each session of the House of Representatives.
Article 52. Hearing
1. To serve legislative activities, the committee of the House of Representatives and the Senate may hold a hearing to hear the persons concerned to explain and clarify certain issues in order to provide the basis for the decision legislative and oversight of the National Assembly.
2. Those who were invited to testify before the committee could be MPs, government officials, leaders of civil society organizations, trade unions, entrepreneurs, professionals, scholars, scientists ...
3. To select quality officials, all potential candidates to the prime minister, ministers, presidents or leaders of the constitutional bodies must testify before his appointment and approval
4. Invited and the hearing procedures prescribed by law.
5. Minutes of the hearing be made public, unless the hearing related to national security, and stored in accordance with the law.
Article 53. National referendum
1. The national referendum may be held on issues of particular importance to the people and country.
2. House may decide to organize national referendum. President with the approval of the Senate have decided to hold national referendum. Upon request of over 500 thousand voters to hold a referendum.
3. The results of the national referendum are binding if more than half of the people have the right to vote to participate in the referendum.
4. The principles and procedures to hold a referendum by law.
Article 54. Monitor, investigate and remove from office
1. House to monitor the work of state or investigate specific issues of the state, has the right to request submission of documents directly related to the problem, ask the witness to provide statements or reports.
2. Based on the results of monitoring, investigation, questioning and hearing, the National Assembly has the right to vote of no confidence against the Minister.
3. Procedures and issues related to the monitoring and investigation of state administrative law.
Article 55. Deposed President
1. Presidential decision to prosecute violations of the Constitution or serious crime especially through the House by resolution with at least a majority of 2/3 of the total number of members of the House of Representatives, on the basis of the request of at 60 Representatives.
2. Prosecution decisions to be tried by the Senate President.
3. From the date of the decision to prosecute, the President suspended the implementation of the mission president, President of the Senate temporarily assume the position of President. If judgment Senate President innocent suspension presidential task termination. If judgment Senate President has crimes, President dethroned.
Article 56. Ratified treaties
1. Congress has the power to agree to sign and ratify international treaties relating to security; international treaties related to international organizations is important; treaties of friendship, commerce and navigation; international treaties related to any limitation of sovereignty; peace treaties; treaties arising important financial obligations to the State or the people; and treaties related legislation.
2. Authorized representative and authorized to sign international treaties signed after the treaty has been approved by the National Assembly.
3. After ratification by the National Assembly, President sign announced treaties and agreements in effect.
Article 57. Declared a state of war
1. Congress has the power in the name of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam declared a state of war and the signing of the peace treaty.
2. National Assembly can only adopt a resolution on the state of war in the event of military aggression on the territory of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. While the National Assembly is not in session, the President may declare a state of war.
Chapter IV. EXECUTIVE
Article 58. Executive power
1. Executive power is exercised by the people authorized by the President.
2. President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam is the head of state and to ensure the continuity of the state agencies.
3. The President is responsible for ensuring compliance with the Constitution, to protect national sovereignty and security, as well as the inviolability and integrity of the national territory.
4. President perform his duties within the scope of and in accordance with the principles prescribed by the Constitution and laws.
Article 59. Elected President and Vice President
1. President and Vice President to stand together a partnership, elected by the voters in the election of universal, equal and direct ballot.
2. Vietnamese citizens at least 35 years old and up to the date of the election, the National Assembly and have the right to vote, may be the presidential candidate and vice presidential candidate. Presidential candidate and vice presidential candidate, as a general partnership, must have signed support of at least 100 thousand citizens have the right to vote of the National Assembly.
3. Partnership received more than half the total number of valid votes will be elected to the Office of President and Vice President.
4. If the partnership does not receive a majority vote, will hold the voting partnership between the two highest number of votes on the 14th day after the first vote.
5. If one of two joint engagement rings vote Monday agreed to withdraw from the list, one of the two people in the partnership loss of the right to vote or die, the partnership reached next highest votes in the first times elected to replace joint Name it. In this case, polling day will be extended for another 14 days.
6. The consortium received a higher number of votes in the second vote will be the persons elected President and Vice President.
7. The principles and procedures for nomination of presidential candidates, Vice President how to conduct elections as well as the requirements for the validity of the election of the President by law.
8. President of the House of Representatives decided to hold presidential elections before 120 days and no later than 100 days before the expiration of the presidential term; in case of vacancy of the President, not later than 14 days from the time of disability . Decided to hold the election must specify the date of the election will be a holiday in the period between 60 and 67 days after the decision.
Article 60. Sworn and presidency
1. At the inauguration of the National Assembly, the President will be sworn in as follows: "I solemnly swear to the people that will faithfully execute the duties of the President in compliance with the Constitution, protect national security, end promote freedom and prosperity of the people, conservation efforts and development of national culture. "
2. President and Vice President have a term of five years from the date of taking office. One can not do more than two terms as president.
Article 61. President to terminate the task before the deadline
1. Duties of the President may be terminated prior to maturity in the following cases: (a) the President died; (b) the President from office; (c) President Expelled rights; (d) due to illness severe and prolonged, the President is no longer the capacity to fulfill their roles. The loss of capacity, in case (d), must be confirmed by the National Assembly with a majority of 3/4 of the total number of Representatives and Senators, after the medical examination.
2. In the case of termination of the mandate President, the Vice President will assume the President during the remainder of the term.
3. In case of vacancy of the Vice President, the Senate elected a new Vice President at the request of the President.
4. In case of defects, both of the President and Vice President, Senate President temporarily as acting President until the National Assembly elected a new President and Vice President, in a manner most, for the remainder of term.
Article 62. Authority of the President
President has the following duties and powers:
1. National policy;
2. Signing legislation;
3. Signing international treaties, after Congress approved signing international treaties;
4. Appointed the ambassador to the approval of the Senate;
5. To receive credentials, received the diplomatic missions;
6. Organization of law enforcement agencies in accordance with the law;
7. Direct the activities of law enforcement agencies;
8. Appointed the Minister with the approval of the National Assembly;
9. Dismissal of the Minister;
10. Organization of the Advisory Council;
11. Decision problems are laws on amnesty, parole, restoration of rights and amnesty;
12. Given the title and the title under the conditions of the law;
13. Granted Vietnamese nationality;
14. Other rights under the law.
Article 63. Supreme dominant armed forces
1. President of Vietnam Democratic Republic is the supreme leader of the armed forces of Vietnam.
2. At the proposal of the Minister of Defense, President of military ranks in accordance with the law.
3. Authority of the President of the supreme dominance for the armed forces will be specified in the law.
Article 64. Prime Minister and the Government members
1. Prime Minister and the ministers are members of the Government, was appointed by the President and approved by Congress.
2. The Prime Minister is responsible for operating support of the President and the Ministry under the direction of the President.
3. No one in the military can be appointed Prime Minister unless the task.
4. The public prosecutor attached to the Ministry of Justice.
Chapter V. JUSTICE
Article 65. Judicial activities
1. Judicial power given to the court, including the judge qualified under the law.
2. The court consists of: the Supreme Court, the courts and the Constitutional Court.
Article 66. Organization of Supreme Court
1. In the Supreme Court the Supreme Council of Judges
2. In the Supreme Court may establish specialized courts.
3. The organization of the Supreme Court and specialized courts and other courts by law.
Article 67. Judge of the Supreme Court
1. Supreme Court judges are appointed by the President with the consent of the National Assembly.
2. Supreme Court judges are appointed by the President as proposed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and with the consent of the National Assembly.
3. Other judges by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court appointed with the consent of the Council of Judges of the Supreme Court.
Article 68. Term of the Supreme Court judges
1. The tenure of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is 6 years and can not be reappointed.
2. Term of office of a judge of the Supreme Court is 6 years and they may be re-appointed in accordance with the law.
3. The tenure of judges outside the Chief Justice and Judges of the Supreme Court 10 years, they can be re-appointed in accordance with the statutory conditions.
4. Retirement age of judges the law.
Article 69. Constitutional Court
The Constitutional Court has jurisdiction for the following issues:
1. The conformity of laws and international treaties with the Constitution;
2. The compatibility of the legislation by the central state agencies to promulgate the Constitution;
3. The appropriateness of the objectives and activities of political parties to the Constitution;
4. Disputes over jurisdiction between the State agencies, between state agencies at central and local government and between local authorities;
5. Who claim that their constitutional rights had been violated by a law or other laws contrary to the Constitution.
Article 70. Organization of the Constitutional Court
1. The Constitutional Court consists of 15 judges elected by the National Assembly of the people who have knowledge and experience in the field of law. Constitutional Court judges have a nine-year term and can not be elected more than one term.
2. Chief Justice and Deputy Chief Justice of the Constitutional Court are appointed by the President of the candidates by the Council of Judges of the Constitutional Court introduced.
3. Organization and operation of the Constitutional Court set out in a law.
Article 71. The principle of independence
Judge of the trial court must independently according to conscience, abide by the Constitution and law. Judges are not allowed to join political parties.
Chapter VI. INDEPENDENT AGENCIES constitutional
Article 72. Independent constitutional bodies
Independent constitutional bodies, not the legislature, the executive or the judiciary, including the Central Bank, the State Auditor, the Election Commission, the Commission on Human Rights and Reconciliation Council Civil nation.
Article 73. Central Bank
1. State Bank of Vietnam assumes the role of the Central Bank of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
2. Organization and activities of the State Bank of Vietnam is regulated by a law.
Article 74. State Auditor
1. State audit activities by professional principles.
2. State Auditor to audit the activities of state administrative agencies, the State Bank of Vietnam, the legal entity and state institutions for the legality, economy, efficiency and diligence.
3. State Auditor under the House of Representatives and shall submit to the House of Representatives: the report analyzes the implementation of the budget and the objectives of monetary policy; comments relating to the settlement approved budget; Information on the results of the audit, the audit conclusions and recommendations in accordance with the law.
4. Chairman of the State Auditor may not join political parties or any other public service activities not consistent with their authorities.
5. Organization and operation of the State Auditor is regulated by a law.
Article 75. Election Commission
1. The Election Commission is established for the purpose of administering the elections and the national referendum, handling administrative issues related to political parties.
2. Central Election Commission consists of three members appointed by the President, three members selected by the National Assembly and three members appointed by the Chief Justice Supreme Court choice. The members of the Committee members elect a chairman
3. Committee member's term is 6 years.
4. Committee members can not join political parties or other political activities.
5. The election campaign was conducted under the administration of the Election Committee at each level within the law with the principle of ensuring equal opportunities for candidates.
6. Organization, function and other important issues of the Central Election Commission and the Election Commission will be prescribed by law.
Article 76. Commission on Human Rights
1. Human Rights Commission is an independent body, has the role of promoting and protecting human rights be noted at the International Human Rights Declaration in 1948 and in the international human rights treaties to which Vietnam is a member. Commission on Human Rights was established by the House of Representatives with the consent of the Senate, consists of nine members, with the participation of representatives of the social component.
2. Human Rights Commission has the following duties and powers:
a. Education and raising awareness of the public, public officials and employees on human rights;
b. Advice to state agencies and social organizations on issues related to human rights;
c. Research, proposed joining international treaties on human rights;
d. Receive complaints of violations of the rights provided for in this Constitution or international treaties to which Vietnam is a member.
3. Committee members shall not hold any other position, except for university faculty positions, nor perform any other professional activities. The members did not participate in any political party, do not perform duties inconsistent with his authority.
4. Modes of organization and operation of the Human Rights Commission will be regulated by a law.
Article 77. National Mediation Board
1. National Reconciliation Council made reconciliation and ethnic harmony, eliminate hatred, aims to overcome the mistakes of the past, in order to bring justice, national unity and promote the capacity of Vietnamese people worldwide.
2. National Reconciliation Council consists of 19 members appointed by the House of Representatives with the consent of the Senate. Five (5) members from each of the North, Central and South Vietnam and four (4) members of the Vietnamese community abroad.
3. National Reconciliation Council has the following duties and powers:
a. Research, determine the validity of laws, treaties were the Vietnamese government in the past issued, signed ultra vires or cause serious harm to the national. Propose to the National Assembly of the solutions to overcome the mistakes of the past.
b. Collection of information, offered free to organize the dialogue, apologize and pay compensation to those who had been sanctioned, investigation, prosecution, trial and injustice, merely because they have promotes democracy, justice and social progress, in order to protect human rights, or to enforce their freedom.
c. Research, the National Assembly of policies, bills can fix other mistakes of the past regime to national reconciliation and harmony.
4. National Reconciliation Council House will be disbanded after they have completed the task.
Chapter VII. LOCAL SELF-MANAGEMENT
Article 78. Local government
1. Local government implementation of local public service, ie the service is not provided for in the Constitution and in the laws of the other state agencies. The local services by local people themselves set. Local authorities deal with the administrative issues related to the welfare of local residents, property management and can draw out the provisions relating to local autonomy within the law.
2. Local governments at each level can have a board and the local state administration.
3. Local Councils are elected by the local population and to the provisions of the local civil service.
4. In his local administrative apparatus performing the services specified in the Constitution, laws and other local services. The heads of local administrative agencies so that local people directly elected.
5. Social is the base unit of local government, where direct democracy made at the highest levels of government.
6. Urban government regulations.
7. The type of local government by law
Article 79. Local government organizations
The organization and jurisdiction of local authorities, procedures for electing members of the board (if any) and the head of the local government and other matters related to the operation of the local authorities shall by law according to the principle of lower-level governments, the application of the higher direct democracy.
CHAPTER VIII. AMENDING THE CONSTITUTION
Article 80. Procedures for amending the Constitution
1. A bill to amend the Constitution may be submitted by the following: at least 1/5 of the Statutory Representatives, the Senate, or the President.
2. If the President a bill to amend the Constitution, the bill does not change the terms related to the current president in the Constitution.
3. The amendment to the Constitution must be made by a law passed by the House of Representatives and then the Senate with the same content in the period of 60 days.
4. Amendment bill passed by the House of Representatives if at least 2/3 of the votes in the presence of at least 2/3 of the total number of Representatives in accordance with the law; bill to amend the Constitution through the Senate if at least 2/3 of the votes in the presence of at least 2/3 of the total number of Senators by law.
5. Within 60 days of the bill to amend the Constitution by the National Assembly to hold a referendum for the people being addressed.
CHAPTER IX. TERMS OF TRANSFORMATION
Article 81. Into force of the Constitution and the conversion provisions
1. This Constitution takes effect 100 days after being decided by the people through.
2. Within 100 days after the Constitution comes into force, the current Parliament (through the Constitution) must be based on the promulgation of the new law on the election of the National Assembly and Presidential elections. The election of the House of Representatives, the Senate and the President first held under the provisions of the law within 180 days after the law takes effect.
3. Government, within two years after the effective date of this Constitution, to review the whole system of law, submitted to the National Assembly amended the provisions contrary to the Constitution and the promulgation of new laws to enforcement of the Constitution.
4. Within 2 years after the effective date of this Constitution, the laws in force at the time of the Constitution by the National Assembly still valid. After this two year period, all provisions contrary to this Constitution becomes invalid, the other provisions remain valid.
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